Bouea macrophylla (Anacardiaceae) 

Common Names 

English: maprang, gandaria, plum mango, Marian mango

Spanish: gandaria 

Italian: mango prugna 

German: pflaumenmango

Indonesia: ramania

Malaysia: kundang, rembunia, setar 

Thailand: ma praang, somprang 


Origin and Distribution 

Native to Malaysia and Indonesia.  Cultivated sporadically throughout the tropics.


Botanical Synonyms 

Bouea gandaria. 



Maprang is a large tree, to 60 feet (18 m) tall, with a straight trunk and a dense crown. The leaves are opposite, lanceolate to elliptic, from 5-12 inches (13-30.5 cm) long and 2-3 inches (5-7.6 cm) wide, and resemble mango leaves. The small, cream colored flowers are grouped in axillary panicles. The fruits are ovoid, from 3-4 inches (7.6-10 cm) long, yellow to orange, with edible skin and juicy, sweet or sour, orange to red flesh surrounding a single seed. The seed has bright purple cotyledons and is edible.



Propagation and Culture

Propagated by seed, air layers or grafting.


In habitat, maprang can be found growing to an elevation of about 1,000 feet (305 m), but under cultivation has been successfully grown as high as 2,700 feet (823 m). Growth is best in fertile soils with good drainage. Seedling trees produce in about 8-10 years, while grafted trees begin to fruit at 5-6 years. In Indonesia, maprang flowers from June to November, and fruits from March to June. In Hawaii, fruiting occurs from May to July.


Cultivars and Related Species

Indonesian cultivars include 'Hintalu', which is very sour, and 'Ramania Pipit' and 'Ramania Tembaga', which have sweet, red flesh.  'Mayong Chid' is a sweet cultivar with yellow orange flesh.

Related edible Bouea species are B. oppositifolia, B. microphylla and B. burmanica, all of which have small, sour fruits.



Maprang fruits, especially the sweet varieties, are consumed  fresh or eaten cooked in syrup.  Entire immature fruits are chopped and used as an ingredient in the spicy condiment sambal, and are pickled to prepare asinan.  Young leaves are also consumed in salads and eaten with sambal.  


Nutritional composition per 100 g maprang fruit      

Carbohydrate 11.3 g
Fat  0.02-0.04 g
Protein  0.04-0.1 g
Calcium  6-9 mg
Phosphorous  4-11 mg
Iron  0.3 mg
Vitamin A  72 IU
Vitamin B1 0.03-0.1 mg
Vitamin B2  0.03-0.05 mg
Niacin  0.3-0.5 mg
Vitamin C   75 mg

Maprang, with its attractive, dense crown, is also planted as a fruit producing shade tree. 


More information on maprang

Ma-praang (Bouea macrophylla Griff.)

Detailed article by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).




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